Clay Stabilizers are used to reduce clay swelling and migration. During fracturing, the fracturing process can cause clay particles to break up. When exposed to the ions in water these particles can swell and block pores. Clay Stabilizers function through ion exchange, where the clay stabilizer provides a cation to replace the native, solubilized clay cation such as sodium. Potassium chloride is often used at high levels (2–4%) as a clay control agent but requires handling at the site of use to prepare a solution. Choline chloride (65-75%) is an attractive alternative due to low cost and ease of handling. It serves as an effective temporary clay stabilizer.
Quaternary amines also provide clay stabilization. Tetramethyl Ammonium Chloride (TMAC) has been used extensively throughout the industry in these applications. Longer term clay stabilization can be provided by polymeric Quaternary Amines. Sunita offers all these types of Clay Stabilization products. Contact a Sales representative for additional information.